Identifying Hormonally Active Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, and Personal Care Product Ingredients of Health Concern from Potential Presence in Water Intended for Indirect Potable Reuse
Shane A. Snyder, Ph.D., Southern Nevada Water Authority
Over the past decade, a diversity of emerging contaminants has been identified in waters around the globe. Of particular interest are pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and potential endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), both of which are generally detected in extremely low (sub-µg/L) concentrations in water. Despite these low levels, public, scientific, and regulatory communities have shown increasing interest and concern about the potential occurrence of these compounds in drinking water and their potential health effects. The vast majority of these compounds are not regulated, and developing toxicity criteria can be time consuming and resource intensive.
The overall goal of this study was to review methodologies for developing screening level human health risk-based criteria for PPCPs and EDCs potentially present in water intended for indirect potable reuse and develop decision criteria. This approach will help in the selection of an appropriate screening methodology to rapidly develop a screening level if a “new” chemical is detected in water. If the concentration of the contaminant is at or above this screening level, then more detailed evaluation of the toxicity and occurrence of the compound is recommended; if the concentration is below the screening level, then the risk to public health is predicted to be well below levels of concern and the presence of the compound does not alone warrant further toxicological studies. Screening values could also be used to develop method reporting limits based on human health endpoints.
Using the approach developed in this report, it is possible to rapidly establish conservative health risk-based screening level values.
(2010, 222 pages, 05-005-1)
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